Headings [008]

Abstract

Use of <head> to encode headings, and permissible values for type= attribute

Discussion

The WWP uses <head> to encode headings, but we restrict the possible type= attribute values to “main” and “sub”.

The default value for type= is “main”, and if no attribute value is specified this is what will be assumed. This value should be used when the heading is the chief one of several sibling headings, or when there is only one heading present. We use <head type="sub"> where one heading is clearly subordinate to a sibling heading. This subordination may be signalled by words like “or” (see example 1), but such words are not necessary. <head type="sub"> should only be used for sibling headings, not for headings of a subordinate <div>; it is important to be certain to which <div> a given heading belongs. If it is unclear whether one heading is subordinate to the other, no type="sub" need be used.

Note that a single heading may be broken across two or more lines. To distinguish between a single multi-line heading and multiple separate headings (or subheadings), we judge on the basis of syntax: if the heading forms a single unbroken syntactic unit, it should be treated as a single heading. In cases where a word like “or” is used to join a heading and a subheading, the join-word should be encoded as part of the subheading, as in the first example, even if it is on a line by itself. This practice preserves the syntactic independence of the main heading (whose “mainness” implies that it could stand on its own).

Examples

Example 1. A heading and subheading for a single <div>, joined by “or”:
<div type="chapter">
<head>The Bucket of Posies</>
<head type="sub">or, Flowers of the Hills</>
[text]</div>

Example 2. A heading and subheading for a single <div> without any linking words:
<div type="chapter">
<head>What the Hills Know</head>
<head type="sub">A Tale of the Countryside</head>
[text]</div>

Example 3. A single heading broken across a line break:
<head>The Morning
<lb>of the Battle</head>

Example 4. A heading for a parent <div>, followed by headings for subdivisions of that <div>
<div type="chapter">
<head>The Bucket of Posies</>
<div type="section" n="1">
<head>1: Flowers of the Hills</>
[text]
</div>
<div type="section" n="2">
<head>2: Flowers of the Valleys</>
[text]
</div>
</div>

Example 5. Successive headings with no clear subordination (all default to “main”)
<div type="section>"
<head>The Star to the Wise</head>
<head>To the High Court of Parliament, the Honourable House of Commons;</head>
<head>The Lady Eleanor her Petition</head>
[text]
</div>

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