Ornaments and rules should wherever possible be encoded as the opening or closing delimiter of an element:
<div rend="pre(&rule;) post(&rule;)">
If there is no logical way to construe the rule/ornament as a delimiter, in a pinch it can be encoded as content within an element.
Encoders can use their judgement about whether to encode the rule/ornament as an opening or closing delimiter, based on the general page layout and the use of rules/ornaments throughout the text. Some general guidelines:
Where a pattern can be discerned (e.g. all chapters begin with a ruled line) that pattern should be used as a basis for deciding where to encode the delimiter (in this case, as rend="pre(&rule;)" on chapter, rather than on the heading for the chapter.
Where the rule or ornament lies at the boundary between two <div>s, it should be encoded as a closing delimiter on the first of the two <div>s:
In cases where a rule or ornament precedes the first <div>, it should be encoded as
Similarly, if the rule or ornament lies at the boundary between two non-<div> elements, it should be encoded as a renditional attribute of the first of the two elements.
When several elements begin or end at the same point in the text, the renditional attribute should be applied to the innermost appropriate element:
Where a rule or ornament is used as a border surrounding an element it is encoded as part of the renditional attribute of the element being surrounded:
<div type="epigraph" rend="border(&rule;)">
Where the rule or ornament is a border surrounding an entire page (even if, as in the case of the titlepage, this page is also an element), it is encoded with an <mw> element (placed at the top of the page) as follows:
<mw type="border" rend="place(fullPageSurround)">&ornament;</mw>