Headings

subheading heading
main sub head

Use of head to encode headings, and permissible values for type attribute

The TEI head element is used for all headings, regardless of their level or context within the document. It may serve to encode headings for lists, tables, divisions, and all of the structural elements which function like divisions (front, body, back, epilogue, prologue, and so forth).

Typically, a heading will be the first child of the textual division that contains it. Usually there is only one heading for a given division, but sometimes there may be multiple headings: for instance, a main heading and one or more descriptive subheadings. In these cases, we recommend using a type attribute to distinguish between the two. Recommended values are main and sub. The sub value should only be used where one heading is clearly subordinate to a sibling heading. This subordination may be signalled by words like or (see example 1), but such words are not necessary. head type="sub" should only be used for sibling headings, not for headings of a subordinate div; it is important to be certain to which div a given heading belongs. If it is unclear whether one heading is subordinate to the other, no type need be used.

Note that a single heading may be broken across two or more lines. To distinguish between a single multi-line heading and multiple separate headings (or subheadings), you may judge on the basis of syntax: if the heading forms a single unbroken syntactic unit, it should be treated as a single heading. In cases where a word like or is used to join a heading and a subheading, the join-word should be encoded as part of the subheading, as in the first example, even if it is on a line by itself. This practice preserves the syntactic independence of the main heading (whose mainness implies that it could stand on its own).

The function of headings overlaps somewhat with that of labels, and that distinction is discussed in more detail here.

Examples

Example 1: A heading and subheading for a single div, joined by “or”:

     <div type="chapter">
     <head>The Bucket of Posies</>
     <head type="sub">or, Flowers of the Hills</>
     [text]</div>

Example 2. A heading and subheading for a single div without any linking words:

<div type="chapter">
<head>What the Hills Know</head>
<head type="sub">A Tale of the Countryside</head>
[text]</div>

Example 3. A single heading broken across a line break:

<head>The Morning 
<lb>of the Battle</head>

Example 4. A heading for a parent div, followed by headings for subdivisions of that div

<div type="chapter">
<head>The Bucket of Posies</>
     <div type="section" n="1">
     <head>1: Flowers of the Hills</>
          [text]
     </div>
     <div type="section" n="2">
     <head>2: Flowers of the Valleys</>
          [text]
     </div>
</div>

Example 5. Successive headings with no clear subordination (all default to “main”)

<div type="section>"
<head>The Star to the Wise</head>
<head>To the High Court of Parliament, the Honourable House of Commons</head>;
<head>The Lady Eleanor her Petition</head>
[text]
</div>